CLIMATE PROGRAM MPLEMENTATION
Implementing actors are those responsible for translating climate finance into action on the ground. These include government ministries and agencies such as the Ministry for Environment, Water and Natural Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife (currently a department under the Ministry for Environment, Water and Natural Resources), the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum, the Ministry of State for the Development of 11 Northern Kenya (moved to the Ministry of Planning and Devolution), and the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (moved to the Ministry for Environment, Water and Natural Resources). Private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral actors also feature as important implementers of climate financed work in Kenya. Each of these is briefly elaborated below.
The Ministry of Energy and Petroleum is charged with energy production, supply and regulation in the country. It houses the government bodies receiving the largest amount of climate financing in Kenya, mostly in the form of loans (US$ 1036.1 million from external funders and US$ 19.5 million from the Government of Kenya). This funding has targeted geothermal energy development, hybrid mini-grid systems and solar water heating. Entities coordinated by this ministry which implement much of this work include parastatals and semi-autonomous government bodies including the Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), the Geothermal Development Company, the Kenya Electricity Transmission Company, the Kenya Power and Lighting Company and the Rural Electrification Authority. Of these, KenGen is mandated to oversee energy production in the country and undertakes the majority of projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in Kenya.19 It is expected that the projects will earn KenGen revenue of approximately US$ 1.1 million annually. In addition, projects are being developed under the Clean Development Carbon Fund, where an extra one US$1 per Certified Emissions Reduction is paid for community development projects such as the extension of water pipelines and the construction and equipping of schools.20 However, it should be noted that KenGen has been faced with allegations of corruption and bribery in relation to two tendering processes, one of which was valued at US$1.3 billion.21
During the period under review, the Ministry of Agric